Plenary Session 2 – The 4th ICIR 2022

The second plenary session was under the theme “Religious Moderation in the Frame of Inclusive Democracy”. This session discussed religious moderation as one of the latest policy instruments in religious governance in Indonesia, as stated in the Presidential Regulations: The National Medium-Term Development Planning (RPJMN) 2020-2024. Aside from some debate over this concept, religious moderation is a policy that has been socialized quite widely in the last two years.

Within the framework of inclusive democracy, which is the main theme of this conference, the question is how far can religious moderation enable all Indonesian citizens, regardless of ethnicity, gender, and other religious identities, to obtain their rights? In the experience of the last few years, what are the opportunities and challenges that have emerged in developing religious moderation?

In the context of narrowing civic space and increasing social polarization recently, there is also the question of whether the policy of religious moderation can strengthen democracy and overcome polarization, or is the other way around. This session featured experts, observers, and activists who have struggled in developing policies of religious moderation and inclusive democracy.


  1. Mark Woodward (Arizona State University)
  2. Romo Bagus Laksana (Rektor Universitas Sanata Dharma)
  3. Nur Rofiah (UIN Jakarta)

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